# Linear Algebra

Tue 29 May 2018

## Vectors

Quantity comprised of a direction and magnitude.

###### Span of Vectors

All the vectors that can be created from a set of vectors.

Vectors are linearly dependent if you can remove one and not reduce the span. One of the vectors can be produced by a linear combination of the others. Otherwise they are linearly independent if each vector adds a new dimension to the span.

###### Dot Product

aka. Inner Product of Two vectors. Used to find the angle between two vectors.

Example:

###### Cross Product

a x b = -b x a X x X = 0 Orthogonal to initial vectors

###### Basis Vectors

Linearly independent vectors in a vector space that, when linearly combined, makes up all of the other vectors in the space. In more general terms, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set.

###### Unit Vectors

In a *normed* vector space is a vector of length 1.
Unit Vectors pointing x, y, z =

###### Parallel Vectors

Two vectors are parallel if one is a scalar multiple of the other.

###### Orthorgonal Vectors

When dot-product of two different vectors is close to 0.

Two vectors which are orthogonal and of length 1 are said to be orthonormal.

Orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity.

## Matrix Inverse

The transpose AT of an m×n matrix A is the n×m matrix whose (i,j)-entry is aji.

## Scaling

## Shear

## Rotation

R =

P = radius cos alpha, r sin alpha P' = r cos(alpha + theta), r sin(alpha + theta)

## Orthographic

## Cuboid

Like cube, but doesn't have to be all equal.

###### Formal Linear Properties

Linear transformation is a transformation that preserves spacing. For example a projects of dots in 2D with space 1 projected onto 1D still have spacing of 1.

## Singular Value Decomposition SVD

Matrix where vectors are orthogonal.

## Determinant

How much a transformation scales a matrix by. If negative, "flips" the axis then scales. When the determinant is 0 the matrix is not invertible. Meaning there is no matrix to multiply it by to give the identity.

2x2 example.

```
import sympy as sp
a, b, c, d = sp.symbols('a,b,c,d')
A = sp.Matrix([[a,b], [c,d]])
A.det()
# Print what this would look like in latex
sp.latex(A)
sp.latex(A.det())
```

## Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

A scalar \(\lambda\) (eigenvalue) when multiplied by an eigenvector is equal to the original matrix A multiplied by the eigenvector.

## Find

on \(\det(A - \lambda I_3) = 0\), i.e.

## Linear Combination

Two or more vectors with scalar weights multipled and added.

## The Frobenius norm